1. http://skibinsky.com/godel-incompleteness-for-startups/
    1. Mathematical proof for why startups exists. Uses Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems to demonstrate the infinite limitations of any defined system. Applied to the individual, demonstrates why there are always more experiences, life always has more to offer in emerging chaos, and ultimately incomplete beings will never be complete because nothingness can never become self-actualized.
  2. https://pmarchive.com/guide_to_startups_part4.html
    1. Marc Andreessen writes about the only that matters for startups—namely, good markets. This flies in the face of most American and modern capitalist philosophy which places the individual and personal choice at the nexus of cause and effect. 
    2. In addition, sheds great light on the shades of innovation. To quote:
      1. Another way of framing the growth-funding question, Peter Thiel suggests, is that Andreessen may not be as suited to making early, counterintuitive investments as he is—a point that Andreessen concedes: “Peter is just smarter than I am, and in a lateral way.” But, Thiel says, Andreessen is well positioned, because of his broad knowledge and flexible mind-set, to respond to incremental changes in an array of fields. And that, he argues, is what the times reward: “While Twitter is a lesser innovation than flying cars, it’s a much more valuable business. We live in a financial age, not a technological age.
    3. Fundamentally takes on a structural and economic determinist view. Markets make the entrepreneur, not the other way around. In Chinese, 形势比人强.
  3. https://medium.com/conversations-with-tyler/peter-thiel-on-the-future-of-innovation-77628a43c0dd
    1. Tyler Cowen has a fascinating way of using economics and hard metrics to make profound observations about our society. I have read his books:
      1. Average is Over: https://www.amazon.com/Average-Over-Powering-America-Stagnation/dp/0142181110 — describes the winner take all economy as applied to individuals and the labor market
      2. The Complacent Class: https://www.amazon.com/Complacent-Class-Self-Defeating-Quest-American/dp/1250108691 — describes evidence for modern malaise in terms of low hanging matching economic gain (Google, Facebook, Amazon) vs. hardcore technology gain (air conditioning, the automobile, space technology) 
    2. Peter Thiel
      1. Zero to One: Makes clear ontological arguments both for the individual and the corporation. Has whifs of Randian influences, blue ocean strategy, abundance mindset, and technological optimism.